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BAZA ZNANJA


Kurs: --- English - Upper-Intermediate

Modul: Phrasal Verbs

Autor: prof. Gordana Matorkić

Naziv jedinice: Wedding Customs


Materijali vezani uz ovu lekciju:

- Test wedding customs
- Test wedding customs
- Test wedding customs
- Wedding Customs (PDF dokument)



Bouquet

For ancient Greeks and Romans, the bouquet was a pungent mix of garlic and herbs or grains. The garlic was supposed to ward off evil spirits and the herbs or grains were to insure a fruitful union. In ancient Poland, it was believed that sprinkling sugar on the bride's bouquet kept her temper sweet. Guests in ancient times would tear off part of the bride’s gown as tokens of good luck, leading to the tradition of the bride throwing both her garter and her bouquet.


Dress

Traditionally, brides did not wear white wedding gowns. Through the 18th century, most brides just wore their Sunday best to their wedding. Red was a favorite during the Middle Ages in Europe. Other colors were worn for symbolic reasons: blue meant constancy and green meant youth. As years passed, white was worn as a symbol of purity. Today, white merely symbolizes the wedding and is worn by any bride, no matter if it is their second marriage. Green is typically not worn at Scottish weddings because it is the color of fairies and an omen of revenge. It is considered unlucky to even eat green vegetables at a wedding.


Honeymoon

The first weddings comprised of a groom taking his bride by capture. He would take her somewhere hidden away so her relatives and villagers couldn't find them. There they stayed for one moon phase and drank mead, a wine made from honey, to make them more amorous. Thus, the word "honeymoon" was born. Today, the honeymoon is the time when the couple can get away for awhile.


Ring

The wedding ring has traditionally been worn on the third finger of the left hand because it was believed that a vein in this finger ran directly to the heart. The third finger of the left hand has become the customary wedding-ring finger for all English-speaking cultures. Many cultures in centuries even reaching into the B.C. era considered a circle, and thus a ring, an emblem of eternity. Rings have no beginning and no end so it became popular to exchange them at marriage events. For the ancient Egyptians, the circle shape had an additional meaning (to worship the sun) and even the hole where a finger is placed had its own meaning (a door leading to the past and future).


Throwing Rice

One of the oldest wedding traditions, the custom of throwing rice, originated with the ancient Hindus and Chinese. In these cultures, rice is the symbol of fruitfulness and prosperity. Tossing it after the ceremony was believed to bestow fertility upon the bride and groom. Eating rice and other grains was thought to guarantee health, wealth and happiness for the newlyweds. Today, rice tossing is being replaced by the more ecologically friendly birdseed tossing, because uncooked rice is damaging to birds that eat it off the church lawn.

Nearly all cultures have showered the wedding couple with symbolic food. For example, the French throw wheat, Sicilians throw wheat bread and salt, and the English throw pieces of cake. Early Romans or Greeks threw nuts, dates, and seed-bearing plants. Bulgarians have thrown figs.


Veil

Mystique and romance has surrounded the veil for more than one thousand years. Originally, the veil is thought to have been used to hide the bride from abductors, just as the similar dress of her bridesmaids was meant to do. But a more romantic interpretation evolved later which believed that concealment (as the bride's face beneath a veil) rendered what was hidden more valuable. Another early interpretation of the veil was that it symbolized youth and virginity.


Threshold

A bride is traditionally carried over the threshold either to symbolize her reluctance to leave her father’s home or because evil spirits hovered over the threshold of a house - so she was lifted over the entrance to protect her from the spirits.

The superstition that the bridegroom must not see his bride before the wedding stems from the days when marriages were arranged and the groom might never have seen the bride. There was the chance that if he saw her, he might bolt. Other sources say that to see the bride in her dress is peering into the future, which can bring bad luck.


Wedding bells

Wedding bells are an important symbol of a wedding. Traditionally, it was believed that demons were scared off by loud sounds, so following a wedding ceremony, anything that could make noise was used to create a diversion. The church bells would be rung as the couple walked down the aisle together or came out of the church. The wedding bells are often rung today as part of the wedding ceremony, to begin and end the service.


The Stag party

The bachelor or stag party supposedly started in fifth-century Sparta where military compatriots would feast and toast one another on the eve of a wedding, like warriors going to battle. Today, this is not just an average night for drinking in the pub or bar. It has a tradition and mystique associated with it involving pranks, tricks and lots of drinking usually at the groom’s expense.

 

Three times a bridesmaid, never a bride

"Three times a bridesmaid, never a bride" dates to about the sixteenth century. It was believed that if young maiden who had been a bridesmaid three times was unable to catch the eye of unmarried males, then she never would. But, if she served seven times as a bridesmaid, the spell was broken and the woman was thought to be a sure bet for marriage.


The text is written in American English.

 

 

Vocabulary

Nouns (imenice):Verbs (glagoli):
bouquet – bidermajer
grain – žito, zrno
sprinkling – prskanje
token – znak, simbol
garter – podvezica
gown – haljina
your Sunday best – najbolja odeća koju imate i nosite je u specijalnim prilikama
constancy – postojanost
purity – čistota
fairy – vila
omen – predskazanje, predznak
mead – medovina
fruitfulness – plodnost
prosperity – blagostanje, napredak
fertility – plodnost
newlyweds – mladenci
birdseed – seme za ptice
lawn – travnjak
date – urma
fig – smokva
concealment – prikrivanje, skrivanje
threshold – prag
reluctance – opiranje, protivljenje
Bachelor or Stag party – momačko veče
compatriot – sunarodnik, zemljak, prijatelj
feast – gozba, svečani ručak
eve – veče
emblem – simbol, znak
worship – obožavanje
aisle – red, prolaz
mystique – mistika
prank – šala
ward off – odbiti
sprinkle – prskati
tear off – iscepati , pokidati
comprise – uključiti, obuhvatiti
capture – zarobiti, osvojiti
get away – pobeći
toss – bacati
bestow – darovati, pokloniti
eat off – jesti sa (eat off the floor)
render – predstaviti, izraziti
carry over – preneti, nositi preko
hover over – lebdeti, leteti iznad nečeg
stem – poticati
bolt – pobeći
peer – viriti
scare off – uplašiti nekog
feast – častiti se, gostiti
catch eye – privući pažnju, zapasti nekom za oko
Adjectives and adverbs
(pridevi i prilozi):
Prepositions and conjunctions
(predlozi i veznici):
pungent – opor
fruitful – plodan
merely – samo
amorous – zaljubljen
thus – prema tome, tako
 -

 

Synonyms

Nouns (imenice):

Verbs (glagoli):

bouquet –  corsage, nosegay, posy

grain –  seed, bean

sprinkling –  scattering, scatter, sprinkle

token – symbol, mark, sign

garter –  supporter

gown –  dress, garment, robe

your Sunday best –  Sunday clothes

constancy –  steadiness, stability, regularity, uniformity

purity –  cleanness, clarity, cleanliness, brilliance

fairy –  faerie, faery, fay, sprite

omen –  sign, warning, indication

fruitfulness –  fecundity

prosperity – success, fortune, wealth, well-being

fertility –  fruitfulness, abundance, richness, fecundity, luxuriance, productiveness

newlyweds –  honeymooners

birdseed –  bird feed, bird food

lawn –  sward

concealment –  cover, hiding, camouflage

threshold –  entrance, doorway, door, doorstep

reluctance –  unwillingness, dislike, aversion,hesitancy

compatriot –  countryman

feast –  banquet, repast

eve –  evening        

emblem –  symbol, mark, sign, token

worship –  praise, love, respect, honour, devotion, admiration

aisle –  passageway, passage, lane

mystique – fascination, spell, magic, charm, glamour, awe, charisma

prank –  joke

ward off –  deflect, fend off

sprinkle –  scatter, strew, shower, spray

tear off –  tear away

comprise – include, contain, consist of, take in, embrace, encompass, comprehend

capture – catch, take, invade

get away –  break free, escape, leave, go away

toss – throw, cast

bestow – present, give, hand out

render –  represent, interpret, portray, depict

bolt –  beetle off, bolt out, run off, run out

peer – spy, gaze, peek

scare off –  daunt, frighten away, frighten off, scare away

feast – banquet, feed

catch eye –  attract, draw attention

Adjectives and adverbs
(pridevi i prilozi):

Prepositions and conjunctions
(predlozi i veznici):

pungent –  acrid, sharp, tart, acrid

fruitful –  productive, prolific, abundant, plentiful, rich

merely –  only, but, just, simply, entirely, purely, solely

amorous –  loving, love, passionate

thus –  therefore, so, hence, consequently, accordingly

-

 

 

Antonyms

Nouns (imenice):Verbs (glagoli):

constancy – unsteadiness, uncertainty

purity – impurity

prosperity – disadvantage, stagnation

fertility – infertility

concealment – exposition, revelation

worship – dishonor, dislike

prank – seriousness

ward off – attract, approve

tear off – associate, join, connect, fasten

comprise – abandon, neglect, destroy, reject

capture – release, let go

get away – arrive, come, join

toss – catch

bestow – take, withhold

render –conceal, fail, withhold, remove

stem – end, finish

bolt – face, meet, stay, remain

peer – ignore, neglect

scare off – calm, comfort, encourage, hearten

feast – abstain, fast

catch eye – refuse, turn off, deny

Adjectives and adverbs
(pridevi i prilozi):
Prepositions and conjunctions
(predlozi i veznici):

pungent – pleasant, sweet, tasteless

fruitful – unfruitful, unproductive

merely – indefinitely

amorous – indifferent

 

 


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