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BAZA ZNANJA


Kurs: -- English - Intermediate

Modul: Passive Voice

Autor: prof. Gordana Matorkić

Naziv jedinice: Tea


Materijali vezani uz ovu lekciju:

- Test tea
- Test tea
- Test tea
- Tea (PDF dokument)



Of the three major drinks in the world- tea, coffee and cocoa- tea is consumed by the largest number of people. The homeland of tea is China. It is believed that Chinese have grown teaplants since two thousand years ago. Tea from China, together with silk and porcelain, was known worldwide over more than a thousand years ago and since then it has been an important Chinese export. At present, more than forty countries in the world grow tea. However, 90% of total tea output is produced by Asian countries. All tea trees in other countries have their origin directly or indirectly in China.

The word for tea leaves in many languages is derivated from the Chinese character “cha”. The Serbs and the Russian call it "cha'i", and even the English word "tea" sounds similar to the Chinese pronunciation. The habit of tea drinking spread to Japan in the 6th century but it was not introduced to Europe and America until the 17th and 18th centuries. Now the number of tea drinkers in the world is huge and is still on the increase.

Chinese tea is classified into several categories according to the method by which it is processed. Tea leaves are dried and heated. Green and black teas are very common and they are highly appreciated in Europe. Green tea keeps the original colour of the leaves. Black tea is developed on the basis of green tea and it is recognized in China as "red tea". There are also Wulong tea, compressed tea and scented tea. Wulong tea is somewhere between green and black teas and it is especially grown in the south of China. Compressed tea is hardened into a certain shape. It is easily transported and it is usually in the form of bricks and cakes. Scented tea is made by mixing fragrant flowers with the tea leaves. Jasmine and magnolia are mostly used in the process and jasmine tea is very much loved by the Europeans.

A new tea plant needs to grow for five years before its leaves are picked and at 30 years of age it stops being productive. When pests are discovered, the affected plants are removed and the use of pesticides is also avoided. The season of tea-picking depends on local climate but it generally starts from the end of March and lasts through October. A skilled woman picker can gather only 600 grams of green tea leaves in a day.

For centuries, tea has been one of the necessities in China. It is said that tea alleviates heat and brings instant cool and a feeling of relaxation during the hot summer days. Medically, tea leaves contain a great number of chemicals, like tannic acid which has healing characteristics. There is also caffeine, a stimulant for the nerve center. A popular proverb in China says: "Rather go without salt for three days than without tea for a single day."

 

Vocabulary

Nouns (imenice):Verbs (glagoli):
homeland - postojbina
plant - biljka
silk - svila
porcelain - porcelan
export - izvozni proizvod
output - proizvodnja
origin - poreklo
pronunciation - izgovor
habit - navika
increase - rast, povećanje
method - metod, način
leaf / leaves (pl) - list / lišće
basis - osnova
south - jug
shape - oblik
brick - cigla
jasmine - jasmin
pest - zarazna bolest biljaka
climate - klima
picker - berač
necessity - neophodnost
chemicals - hemikalije
tannic acid - taninska kiselina
caffeine - kofein
stimulant - stimulans
proverb - poslovica
salt - so
consume - konzumirati
grow - gajiti, rasti
derivate - izvoditi, napraviti
reč od neke druge reči
spread - proširiti se
classify - klasifikovati
dry - sušiti
heat - zagrevati
appreciate - ceniti
harden - očvrsnuti, stvrdnuti
mix - mešati
pick - brati
remove - odstraniti
avoid - izbegavati
gather - sakupiti
depend - zavisiti
alleviate - olakšavati, umirivati
contain - sadržati
Adjectives and adverbs
(pridevi i prilozi):
Prepositions and conjunctions
(predlozi i veznici):
major - glavni, najveći
worldwide - širom sveta
at present - u ovom trenutku
total - ukupni
similar - slično
several - nekoliko
common - čest
certain - određen
compressed - kompresovan, sabijen
scented - mirisan
fragrant - mirisan
affected - zahvaćen, ugrožen
skilled - vešt
instant - trenutan
healing - za izlečenje, lekovit
single - jedan
however - ipak, međutim
even - čak
according to - na osnovu, u skladu sa
during - tokom
rather - radije

 

Synonyms

Nouns (imenice):Verbs (glagoli):
homeland – native land, birthplace, motherland, fatherland
plant – herb
porcelain – china
export - foreign trade, international trade, overseas trade
output – production
origin – heritage
habit – custom, rule, practice, tradition, routine
increase - growth
method - manner, process, approach, technique, way
basis – foundation, support, base, ground
shape – pattern, form, model
climate – weather, temperature
necessity – essential, need, necessary, requirement, fundamental
proverb – saying
consume – eat, swallow, use
grow - cultivate, produce, raise, breed
spread - expand
classify – categorize, sort
heat – warm (up)
appreciate – respect, admire
harden - strengthen, toughen
mix – combine, blend
pick – gather, pull, collect
remove – take away, move, transfer
avoid – ignore
gather – collect, pick  
alleviate - ease, reduce, relieve, moderate, smooth, diminish
contain – include, consist of
Adjectives and adverbs
(pridevi i prilozi):
Prepositions and conjunctions
(predlozi i veznici):
major - important, vital, critical, significant
worldwide - global, general, international, universal
at present - now
total – entire, full, whole
similar – alike
several – a few, many
common – usual, standard, daily, regular, ordinary, familiar
certain – particular, special, individual, specific
compressed - squeezed, concentrated, compact, compacted
scented – fragrant, perfumed, aromatic, sweet-smelling
fragrant – aromatic, perfumed, sweet-smelling, sweet-scented
affected - influenced, stimulated
skilled – expert, professional, trained, experienced
instant – immediate, prompt
healing - restoring, medicinal, therapeutic, remedial, restorative, curative
single – one, sole
however - but, nevertheless, still, though, yet
during – throughout, through
rather – preferably, sooner, instead

 

Antonyms

Nouns (imenice):Verbs (glagoli):

plant - animal

export - import

increase - decrease

basis - top

pest - good health

necessity - trivia

stimulant - hindrance

grow - destroy, demolish

spread - decrease, diminish

classify - disarrange, disorganise

dry - dampen

heat - freeze, cool

appreciate - be critical, criticize

harden - loose, soften

mix - unmix

pick - grow, plant

remove - add, allow

avoid - face, meet

gather - separate, divide

alleviate - worsen, irritate

contain - exclude, free

Adjectives and adverbs
(pridevi i prilozi):
Prepositions and conjunctions
(predlozi i veznici):

major - inferior, insignificant

worldwide - local, limited

total - limited, incomplete, restricted

similar - different, unlike

several - individual, one, none

common - uncommon, individual

certain - uncertain, unsure

compressed - enlarged

scented - bland

fragrant - unpleasant

affected - natural, genuine

skilled - unskilled, incompetent

instant - slow, late

single - general, public

rather - extremely, insignificantly

 


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