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BAZA ZNANJA


Kurs: -- English - Intermediate

Modul: Relative Clauses

Autor: prof. Gordana Matorkić

Naziv jedinice: Culture Differences


Materijali vezani uz ovu lekciju:

- Test culture differences
- Test culture differences
- Test culture differences
- Culture Differences (PDF dokument)



Handshaking differences can make for some embarrassing and humorous cultural encounters. British, Australian, New Zealander, German and American colleagues will usually shake hands on meeting, and again on departure. Most European cultures will shake hands with each other several times a day, and some French have been noted to shake hands for up to 30 minutes a day. Indian, Asian and Arabic cultures may continue to hold your hand when the handshake has ended. Germans and French give one or two firm pumps followed by a short hold, whereas Brits give three to five pumps compared with an American's five to seven pumps. This is hilarious to observe at international conferences where a range of different handshake pumping takes place between surprised delegates. To the Americans, the Germans, with their single pump, seem distant. To the Germans however, the Americans pump hands as if they are blowing up an airbed.

When it comes to greeting with a cheek kiss, the Scandinavians are happy with a single kiss, the French mostly prefer a double, while the Dutch, Belgians and Arabs go for a triple kiss. The Australians, New Zealanders and Americans are continually confused about greeting kisses and bump noses as they fumble their way through a single peck. The Brits either avoid kissing by standing back or will surprise you with a European double kiss.

When Italians talk they keep their hands held high as a way of holding the floor in a conversation. What seems like affection  arm touching during an Italian conversation is nothing more than a way of stopping the listener from raising his hands and taking the floor. To interrupt an Italian you must grab his hands in mid air and hold them down. As a comparison the Germans and British look as if they are physically paralyzed when they talk. They are daunted when trying to converse with Italians and French and rarely get an opportunity to speak. French use their forearms and hands when they talk, Italians use their entire arms and body, while the Brits and Germans stand at attention.

When it comes to doing international business, smart attire, excellent references and a good proposal can all become instantly unstuck by the smallest, most innocent gesture sinking the whole deal. Our research in 42 countries shows North Americans to be the least culturally sensitive people with the British coming in a close second. Considering that 86% of North Americans don't have a passport, it follows that they would be the most ignorant of international body language customs. Even George W Bush had to apply for a passport after becoming President of the United States so he could travel overseas. The Brits, however, do travel extensively but prefer everyone else to use British body signals, speak English and serve fish and chips. Most foreign cultures do not expect you to learn their language but are extremely impressed by the traveller who has taken the time to learn and use local body language customs. This tells them that you respect their culture.

One area where handshakes, kissing and bear hugs have not become established is Japan, where such bodily contact is considered impolite. Japanese people bow on first meeting, the person with the highest status bowing the least and the one with the least status bowing the most. On first meeting, business cards are exchanged, each person assesses the others status and appropriate bowing follows.

In Japan, make sure your shoes are spotlessly clean and in good condition. Every time a Japanese bows, he inspects them.

The Japanese way of listening to someone involves a repertoire of smiley nods and polite noises, which have no direct equivalent in other languages. The idea is to encourage you to keep on talking but this is often misinterpreted by Westerners and Europeans. The Head Nod is an almost universal sign for "yes", except for the Bulgarians who use the gesture to signify "no", and the Japanese who use it for politeness. If you say something a Japanese doesn't agree with, he'll still say "yes" - or Hai in Japanese - to keep you talking. A Japanese "yes" usually means, "yes, I heard you" and not "yes, I agree". For example, if you say to a Japanese person "you don't agree, do you?" he will nod his head and say "yes" even though he may not agree. In the Japanese context, it means "Yes, you are correct - I don't agree."

People do business with people who make them feel comfortable and it comes down to sincerity and good manners. When entering a foreign country, concentrate on reducing the broadness of your body language until you have the opportunity to observe the locals. If you're not sure how to be polite in someone else's culture, ask the locals to show you how things are done.

Cultural misinterpretation of gestures can produce embarrassing results and a person's background should always be considered before jumping to conclusions about the meaning of his or her body language and gestures.

 

Vocabulary    

Nouns (imenice):Verbs (glagoli):
encounter – susret
pump – stisak
airbed – gumeni dušek napunjen vazduhom
cheek – obraz
peck – poljubac
affection – privrženost
forearm – podlaktica
attire – odeća
nod – klimanje glavom ( kao odobravanje)
sincerity- iskrenost
broadness – širina
bump – udariti
fumble – nespretno rukovati, preturati, napipavati
hold the floor – držati govor
take the floor – diskutovati, voditi debatu
grab – zgrabiti
daunt – zaplašiti, obeshrabriti
come/become unstuck – propasti
bear hug – jako zagrliti
establish – osnovati
bow  - pokloniti se
misinterpret – pogrešno tumačiti
jump to conclusions - prerano donositi zaključke
stand at attention – stajati u stroju
Adjectives and adverbs
(pridevi i prilozi):
Prepositions and conjunctions
(predlozi i veznici):
embarrassing – neprijatan
hilarious – smešan
unstuck – upropašten
extensively – obimno
spotlessly – besprekorno
ignorant - neupućen
whereas – u poređenju sa

 

Synonyms    

Nouns (imenice):Verbs (glagoli):
encounter – meeting
peck – kiss
affection – fondness, liking, feeling, love, care, desire
attire – clothes, wear, dress, clothing
nod –  incline, bob, bow, duck, dip
sincerity - honesty, truth, frankness
broadness – wideness
bump – knock, hit, strike
fumble – stumble, blunder, flounder, bumble
take the floor – discuss, debate
grab – snatch, catch, capture, grip, grasp
daunt – discourage, frighten, scare, terrify, intimidate, deter
come/become unstuck – break down, fall apart
establish – set up, found, start, create, institute, organize
bow  - bob
misinterpret – misunderstand, get wrong
jump to conclusions - presume, presuppose
Adjectives and adverbs
(pridevi i prilozi):
Prepositions and conjunctions
(predlozi i veznici):
embarrassing – humiliating, upsetting, compromising, shaming
hilarious – funny, entertaining, amusing, humorous
unstuck – ruined
ignorant – uneducated, illiterate, inexperienced
whereas – but on the other hand

 

Antonyms

Nouns (imenice):Verbs (glagoli):

encounter – avoidance

affection – carelessness, indifference

nod – disagree, disapprove, refuse, reject

sincerity- dishonesty

fumble – succeed, do well

take the floor – ignore, be quiet

grab – give, let go

daunt – calm, comfort, encourage

bear hug – free, let go

establish – destroy, end

Adjectives and adverbs
(pridevi i prilozi):
Prepositions and conjunctions
(predlozi i veznici):

embarrassing – convenient, helpful

hilarious – tiring, boring, serious

spotlessly – imperfectly

ignorant - educated, intelligent, competent

 

 


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